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first_imgResults from phase 1 trials of two different types of Zika vaccines, one of them an inactivated vaccine recently shelved by Sanofi over shaky research support and other challenges, found that they were safe and immunogenic.One of the studies focused on two different version of a DNA-based vaccines, while the other detailed findings for the inactivated vaccine. Work on both vaccine was done with support from the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), and both studies were published yesterday in The Lancet.A dramatic fall in Zika cases prompted the US government to reshuffle its Zika-related research priorities. About 2 month ago, Sanofi announced it was halting work on its candidate inactived Zika vaccine in the face of scaled-back funding from the Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (BARDA). Also, a US Army licensing arrangement with Sanofi ran into tough political headwinds, with some politicians urging the government to secure an agreement to limit the resulting vaccine’s price.About 20 Zika vaccines are at various developmental stages.Inactivated vaccine resultsThe trial of the inactivated vaccine (ZPIV), developed by scientists at the Walter Reed Army Institute of Research (WRAIR), took place at three US sites and involved 67 adults, including 55 who received the aluminum salt–adjuvanted vaccine and 12 who got placebo. Participants received two intramuscular injections of the same dose 4 weeks apart.More than 90% of those who received the inactivated vaccine had detectable antibodies to Zika virus within 4 weeks of the last dose.Though the antibody concentration that is needed to protect babies from congenital Zika infection hasn’t been determined, the researchers showed that antibodies in the blood of participants who received the vaccine provided robust protection to mice that were experimentally infected with Zika virus.Anthony Fauci, MD, NIAID director, said in a press release that a Zika vaccine is urgently needed to protect babies from related birth defects and adults and children from other health problems related to the virus. “We are encouraged by initial clinical trial results that indicate the ZPIV vaccine is safe and immunogenic, data that support additional clinical testing of the vaccine to determine its ability to prevent Zika virus infection,” he said.Col Nelson Michael, MD, PhD, who leads the Zika program at WRAIR, said in the NIAID release, “Zika remains a threat to U.S. military personnel and families of service members. We aim to develop a vaccine to protect the military, as well as the global community.”The next research steps for the WRAIR vaccine are to evaluate dosing, scheduling, and prior immunity. To examine how pre-existing immunity might affect vaccine response, WRAIR is vaccinating participants with yellow fever or Japanese encephalitis vaccine before testing the ZPIV regimen. All three viruses are members of the flavivirus family.Also, a study is set to take place in Puerto Rico in people who have been exposed to flavivirus naturally, such as via a previous dengue infection. Meanwhile, other US studies will assign participants to receive a high, moderate, or low dose to gauge optimal dosing, and another will test various dosing schedules.Nelson told Reuters that the Army was exploring licensing the ZPIV vaccine to other companies.One DNA vaccine outperformed other oneThe second study tested two forms of a DNA-based vaccine created by NIAID scientists soon after reports surfaced linking Zika infection during pregnancy to birth defects. The vaccines contain a small circular piece of DNA called a plasmid, in which researchers inserted genes encoding two Zika virus surface proteins.The team tested two different plasmids: VRC5288 and VRC5283. The trial of the VRC5288 version launched in August 2016 and involved 80 healthy volunteers ages 18 to 35 years old at three US sites. They received either two or three doses at different time intervals of 4 milligrams (mg) by needle and syringe in the arm muscle, all at least 4 weeks apart.Meanwhile, the trial of the VRC5283 vaccine began in December 2016 at the National Institutes of Health Clinical Center and involved 45 healthy volunteers ages 18 to 50 years old. Each received either two or three 4-mg doses at various time intervals. The researchers also compared two vaccine delivery methods—needle plus syringe or needle-free injector—to see which was most immunogenic. In addition, some participants received the full vaccine dose divided with one injection administered to each arm.Aside from mild to moderate reactions such as tenderness or redness at the injection site, the vaccine was safe and well tolerated by people in both trials.Analysis of blood samples obtained 4 weeks after final vaccination found that 60% to 89% of those who received the VRC5288 version had a neutralizing antibody response, which was lower than the 77% to 100% of participants who achieved that response after receiving the VRC5283 vaccine.In the trial of vaccine containing the VRC5283 plasmid, participants who were immunized with the needle-free injector had the highest neutralizing antibody response levels, and those who got a split dose administered to both arms had a more robust response than those who received the full dose in one arm.The researchers determined that the VRC5283 vaccine showed the most promise and moved it forward to an international efficacy trial in March 2017, with a goal of enrolling at least 2,490 healthy volunteers in areas with confirmed or potentially active Zika transmission in US states, Puerto Rico, Central America, and South America.In a separate NIAID press release, Fauci said promising phase 1 results support phase 2 testing. According to the NIAID, the goals of the study are also to further evaluate its safety and immunogenicity and determine if it can prevent Zika infection.Key unanswered questionsIn a Lancet commentary on both studies, two experts with the Center for Vaccine Research at the University of Pittsburgh, one of whom is also with Brazil’s Fiocruz Institute, wrote that having multiple promising vaccine candidates within 2 years of identifying the link between Zika and microcephaly is impressive.They wrote said the results from both trials are promising, but more research is needed to address key questions. One is whether viral antigens in the vaccine might cross-react with host molecules. “Full understanding of the mechanism of Guillain-Barre syndrome associated with Zika virus could be crucial to ensure vaccine safety,” they added.Also, they raised concerns about the possibility of whether immunity to Zika from vaccination may alter the behavior of other flaviviruses, such as dengue viruses or dengue vaccination, which could have a clinical impact.Other challenges are field efficacy testing, given Zika’s pattern of rapidly emerging bursts followed by rapid decline, and the difficulty of conducting trials in nonpregnant participants with a disease that has mild symptoms.”A rapid and accurate assessment of Zika vaccine efficacy is likely to need understanding of overall correlates of protection and mechanisms involved in fetal infection,” the two wrote. They noted that it took nearly 30 years for a rubella vaccine to become available, and though Zika incidence has dropped in most countries, its spread has been wide and unpredictable.”A vaccine to protect against Zika congenital syndrome is still urgently needed,” they conclude.See also:Dec 4 Lancet inactivated Zika vaccine studyDec 4 NIAID press release on inactivated Zika vaccine trialDec 4 Reuters storyDec 4 Lancet DNA Zika vaccine studyDec 4 NIAID press release on DNA vaccine trialsDec 4 Lancet commentarylast_img read more

first_imgPaspor biometrik atau elektronik paspor (e-paspor) merupakan jenis paspor yang memiliki data biometrik sebagai salah satu pengamanannya. Biasanya data biometrik ini tersimpan dalam bentuk chip yang tertanam pada paspor.Baca juga: Mudahkan Pelancong Asing, Jepang Hadirkan Gerbang Pemindai Otomatis di Bandara NaritaDengan paspor biometrik, pelancong yang akan bepergian lebih dimudahkan, bahkan beberapa negara tidak lagi memerlukan visa ketika sudah menggunakan e-paspor tersebut. Paspor biometrik sendiri sudah diadopsi oleh Malaysia sejak tahun 1998 lalu dan diikuti 60 negara lain pada 2008 dan 120 negara pada 2017. Bahkan baru-baru ini, Indonesia yang sudah mengeluarkan paspor biometrik mendapat sertifikat Public Key Directory (PKD) dari International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO). Dilansir KabarPenumpang.com dari biometricupdate.com (2/10/2019), sertifikat ini diterima oleh Direktur Jenderal Imigrasi Indonesia Ronny F Sompie dari Sekretaris Jenderal ICAO Fang Liu di kantor pusat di Montreal minggu lalu.Bisa dikatakan dari ratusan negara yang menggunakan paspor biometrik, Indonesia satu dari 69 negara yang mendapat sertifikat PKD tersebut. Sehingga pertukaran informasi untuk penyeberangan batas lebih mudah meski baru 69 negara.Saat ini di Indonesia baru ada beberapa kantor imigrasi yang mengeluarkan paspor biometrik seperti di Bandara Soekarno-Hatta, Tanjung Priok, Surabaya dan Batam. Pihak Imigrasi akan menambah empat kantor lain yang bisa mengeluarkan paspor biometrik di tahun 2019 ini dan semua kantor di 2024 mendatang.Sayangnya diketahui, sempat ada dugaan cacat privasi kritis dalam paspor biometrik. Hal ini diidentifikasi oleh sekelompok peneliti dari Universitas Luxemburg. Ross Horne, Profesor Sjouke Mauw, kandidat PhD Zach Smith dan mahasiswa Master Ihor Filimonov menemukan kerentanan yang memungkinkan peralatan pemindaian perangkat yang tidak resmi mendapatkan akses ke informasi paspor biometrik.“Dengan perangkat yang tepat, Anda dapat memindai paspor di sekitarnya dan mengidentifikasi kembali pemegang paspor yang diamati sebelumnya, melacak pergerakannya. Jadi, pemegang paspor tidak terlindungi dari pergerakannya dapat dilacak oleh pengamat yang tidak sah,” jelas Horne.Taktik ini memiliki beberapa batasan, sehingga hal itu tidak memiliki akses ke semua informasi penting paspor, seperti rincian biometrik yang disimpan dalam chip, tetapi masih dalam kompromi privasi pemegang paspor.Baca juga: Senyum Anda Tak Dibutuhkan Saat Pemindaian Wajah di Bandara“Karena sebagian besar paspor saat ini menggunakan standar yang sama, kelemahan keamanan ini berpotensi berdampak global,” lanjut Horne.Pelanggaran keamanan ini jelas merupakan pelanggaran terhadap undang-undang GDPR (General Data Protection Regulation)  dari Uni Eropa yang memaksa organisasi dan pemerintah di Eropa untuk melindungi data pengguna, dokumen, dan privasi online. Namun, dugaan cacat tersebut dibantah oleh ICAO.Share this:Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Like this:Like Loading… RelatedKeren, Denmark Luncurkan Paspor Digital Covid-19, Seperti Apa?15/07/2020In “Basis Aplikasi”Serba-Serbi Empat Warna Pada Cover Paspor22/11/2017In “Destinasi”Agar Proses Imigrasi Lebih Cepat, Yuk Manfaatkan Autogate di Bandara Soekarno-Hatta24/08/2017In “Bandara”last_img read more

first_img Spencer German Related TopicsCleveland BrownsJarvis LandryJosh GordonMiami Dolphins CLEVELAND, OH — This Browns offseason has been dominated by talk of what player and position Cleveland will look to address with the No. 1 pick. That changed on Friday.According to multiple outlets, the Browns have traded a singular draft pick from both 2018 and 2019 to the Miami Dolphins to acquire speedy slot receiver, Jarvis Landry. Ian Rapoport of the NFL Network had was the first to report the blockbuster trade. While agreed to by both sides, the deal cannot be made official until 4 pm on March 14, when the new league year begins.Cleveland has yet to confirm the trade, but the team’s twitter account did react to the news…?— Cleveland Browns (@Browns) March 9, 2018The Browns have been linked to Landry since before the trade deadline this past season, but nothing came to fruition back then. It’s no surprise that their interest in the three-time Pro Bowler resurfaced when he became available this offseason.While it may seem unwise to trade draft capital for a player who a was tagged for the sole purpose of being traded, only to then have to lock him with a massive long-term deal, it’s not as if Cleveland doesn’t have an embarrassment of riches when it comes to both picks and money. The Browns are projected to have $110 million in cap space – a league high – when free agency opens on Wednesday. They also have 12 draft picks in 2018.According to ESPN’s Adam Schefter, neither of the picks that Cleveland is sending to South Beach are in the first or second round of their respective year’s draft, making the swap extremely favorable for Cleveland. Schefter also shared that the Browns are already working on an extension for their newest wideout.Landry has been a staple in Miami’s offense since he was selected 63rd overall in the 2014 NFL Draft. In each of this four seasons with the Dolphins he caught more than 80 passes and racked up 4,038 yards and 22 TDs. Twice, in 2015 and this past season, he caught more than 100 balls, something the Browns have never seen done by a receiver in team history. In 2017, Landry was the NFL’s receptions leader with a career-high 112 receptions. He also scored a career-best nine touchdowns.The addition of Landry is a welcomed one for a Browns offense that ranked in the bottom third of the league in passing yards and 28th in passing touchdowns a season ago. The return of Josh Gordon after his latest hiatus from footballe due to substance abuse issues was a welcomed one that produced flashes of progress. But Cleveland’s lack of weapons overall were a major contributor in the now infamous 0-16 season.Now, with a receiving corps of Gordon, Landry and Corey Coleman, plus versatile running back Duke Johnson out of the backfield and 2017 first-round pick, tight end Davis Njoku, the Browns offense has no shortage of weapons. This offensive makeover is hardly complete, either.It’s no secret Cleveland is still desperately searching for their quarterback of the future, which they could find with the first overall pick come April. Regardless, whoever ends up under center for the Browns in 2018 will have quite a supporting cast.last_img read more

first_imgSee also:Green sent off as QPR lose at home to ForestFreedman delighted after Forest’s win at QPRRamsey again critical of QPR’s defending after defeatQPR v Nottingham Forest player ratings Chris Ramsey says he does not believe a knee problem which kept Alejandro Faurlin out of QPR’s defeat against Nottingham Forest is cause for concern.The popular Argentine picked up a knock in training on Friday and was left out of the matchday squad at Loftus Road, where recent signing Daniel Tozser made his R’s debut.Faurlin, 28, returned to the Rangers side at the start of the season after batting his way back from a third long-term knee injury in as many years.AdChoices广告And head coach Ramsey believes Faurlin will soon be back in action.He explained: “He got a knock in training on Friday. It’s a knock on the same bad knee and we didn’t want to risk it. Longer-term he should be fine.”Faurlin’s condition will be assessed ahead of Wednesday’s home match against Blackburn. Follow West London Sport on TwitterFind us on Facebooklast_img read more

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